This reference covers CQL specification version 3.3.1¶
Experimental in Scylla 2.1-2.3, production ready in Scylla 3.0¶
Materialized views names are defined by:
CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW¶
You can create a materialized view on a table using a
CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW statement:
create_materialized_view_statement: CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW [ IF NOT EXISTS ] `view_name` AS : `select_statement` : PRIMARY KEY '(' `primary_key` ')' : WITH `table_options`
CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW monkeySpecies_by_population AS SELECT * FROM monkeySpecies WHERE population IS NOT NULL AND species IS NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY (population, species) WITH comment='Allow query by population instead of species';
CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW statement creates a new materialized view. Each such view is a set of rows which
corresponds to rows which are present in the underlying, or base, table specified in the
SELECT statement. A
materialized view cannot be directly updated, but updates to the base table will cause corresponding updates in the
Creating a materialized view has 3 main parts:
- The select statement that restricts the data included in the view.
- The primary key definition for the view.
- The options for the view.
Attempting to create an already existing materialized view will return an error unless the
IF NOT EXISTS option is
used. If it is used, the statement will be a no-op if the materialized view already exists.
MV Select Statement¶
The select statement of a materialized view creation defines which of the base table is included in the view. That statement is limited in a number of ways:
- The selection is limited to those that only select columns of the base table. In other
words, you can’t use any function (aggregate or not), casting, term, etc. Aliases are also not supported. You can
however use * as a shortcut of selecting all columns. Further, static columns cannot be
included in a materialized view (which means
SELECT *isn’t allowed if the base table has static columns).
WHEREclause have the following restrictions:
- It cannot include any
- The columns that are not part of the base table primary key can only be restricted by an
IS NOT NULLrestriction. No other restriction is allowed.
- As the columns that are part of the view primary key cannot be null, they must always be at least restricted by a
IS NOT NULLrestriction (or any other restriction, but they must have one).
- They can also be restricted by relational operations (=, !=, >, <).
- It cannot include any
- It cannot have neither an ordering clause, nor a limit, nor ALLOW FILTERING.
MV Primary Key¶
A view must have a primary key and that primary key must conform to the following restrictions:
- it must contain all the primary key columns of the base table. This ensures that every row in the view corresponds to exactly one row of the base table.
- it can only contain a single column that is not a primary key column in the base table.
So for instance, give the following base table definition:
CREATE TABLE t ( k int, c1 int, c2 int, v1 int, v2 int, PRIMARY KEY (k, c1, c2) );
then the following view definitions are allowed:
CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW mv1 AS SELECT * FROM t WHERE k IS NOT NULL AND c1 IS NOT NULL AND c2 IS NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY (c1, k, c2); CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW mv1 AS SELECT * FROM t WHERE v1 IS NOT NULL AND k IS NOT NULL AND c1 IS NOT NULL AND c2 IS NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY (v1, k, c1, c2);
but the following ones are not allowed:
// Error: cannot include both v1 and v2 in the primary key as both are not in the base table primary key CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW mv1 AS SELECT * FROM t WHERE k IS NOT NULL AND c1 IS NOT NULL AND c2 IS NOT NULL AND v1 IS NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY (v1, v2, k, c1, c2) // Error: must include k in the primary as it's a base table primary key column CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW mv1 AS SELECT * FROM t WHERE c1 IS NOT NULL AND c2 IS NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY (c1, c2)
A materialized view is internally implemented by a table and as such, creating a MV allows the same options than creating a table.
ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW¶
After creation, you can alter the options of a materialized view using the
ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW statement:
alter_materialized_view_statement ::= ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW
The options that can be updated are the same than at creation time and thus the same than for tables.
DROP MATERIALIZED VIEW¶
Dropping a materialized view users the
DROP MATERIALIZED VIEW statement:
drop_materialized_view_statement ::= DROP MATERIALIZED VIEW [ IF EXISTS ]
If the materialized view does not exists, the statement will return an error, unless
IF EXISTS is used in which case
the operation is a no-op.
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